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Since 1891, the cynic has been enjoying the Art of Being Always Right by Schopenhauer, who was never right against Friedrich Hegel, whom he hated, and whose only legacy is his sophomoric breviary for politicians in a hurry. Schopenhauer teaches techniques and procedures that are supposed to allow one to win a debate, all of which, in the final analysis, are based on force, lies or masquerade. What a tribute to reason!
Let us recall the traditional opposition between philosophers, serving the truth, and vulgar sophists, teaching the art of convincing people of everything and nothing, for money. This opposition, in its purity and its clash, is of course due to Plato, the demiurge of thought. In his dialogues, Plato never ceased to fight against sophists, embodied in the characters of Protagoras, Gorgias or Callicles.
According to Kelsen, the norm that enshrines the arbitrariness of an authority has the highest degree of legal generality.
We begin by examining Hans Kelsen's definition of normative generality (Chapter 1), formulating our thesis. We then examine the question of whether individual norms can be deduced from general norms (Chapter 2), which will allow us to consider one of Kelsen's objections to the proposed concept of generality. Refutation of Hans Kelsen's concept of law, by Drieu Godefridi